Did you know that there are seasons for “Fire Suppression Testing”?
In fact, there are two seasons – fall and spring. A variety of factors go into when a fire suppression system is tested like the client’s budget cycle and the life cycle of their machinery.
An important element to fire suppression systems, is CO2 and it has long been used as a fire suppressor for many decades in a variety of safety and industrial applications.
Why do people who use CO2 as a fire suppression agent, test their equipment?
The short answer - they are required to under NFPA 12 standards. The more complete answer is that any operator of these systems will want assurances that the suppression system is going to work effectively should the necessity arise.
CO2 fire suppression systems are designed to displace oxygen from the designated area as quickly as possible to “suffocate” the fire. Typically, these systems utilize banks of high pressure CO2 cylinders to release CO2 in a 100% concentration to displace the oxygen as quickly as possible. No oxygen = no fire.
See this video snippet for an example of what a CO2 suppression system does.
Think of a fire extinguisher – then think of HUGE fire extinguisher. Now think of dozens of huge fire extinguishers in one room all going off at the same time. Whoosh! Out goes the fire! Another great example can be found here.
One main advantage of CO2 as a suppression agent is that it is an inert gas and will not adversely effect equipment like water does. Carbon dioxide (CO2) does not damage equipment or create any clean-up after the test or fire. Yes, you will have to mitigate the damage done by the initial fire, but you will not have water or foam damage to re-mediate like you would with other suppression methods. Additionally, CO2 is effective on a wide range of flammable and combustible materials, and is approved for suppression of Class A, B and C hazards.
The challenge facing designers and operators of CO2 Fire Suppression Systems is that they must also be safe for people working nearby. Fire-prevention systems which result in the oxygen content being less than 19.5% are not permitted for occupied spaces by federal regulation (OSHA) in the United States. They must also be safe for first-respondents after the fire has occurred.
To protect human life in an emergency, facilities that use CO2 as a fire suppressor are required by regulatory agencies to follow the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards for design, installation and testing of CO2 systems. These standards include requirements for full discharge tests and an evacuation plan for personnel. Once the fire emergency is over, the standard requires the air be tested for normal CO2 levels before personnel can return to work.
NFPA 12 lays out very clear standards for how a fire suppression system must be tested including the speed at which specified concentration levels of CO2 are achieved and how long those levels are maintained.
To implement this testing, CO2Meter.com has worked with several industry professionals to provide the best devices to test and verify CO2 levels.
We have worked with worldwide fire protection and industrial companies like TYCO-SimplexGrinnell, UTC-Chematron, and Mitsubishi Hitachi Power to design a device that meets all the standards for CO2 fire suppression laid out in NFPA 12.
Designed with and for our partners in the fire suppression, safety, and laboratories the CM-1000 GasLab Pro Multi-Gas Sampling Data Logger, this highly requested multi sensor platform will have its highly anticipated debut at the 2019 NFPA Conference and Expo in San Antonio.
The CM-1000 was designed to simultaneously measure multiple gas concentrations using the fast and accurate sampling method while also data logging.
The Multi Gas Detector features an audible alarm, LCD Back light screen and large display for easy reading of gas concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure.
Our 100% CO2 Sampling Data Logger remains the most trusted 100% CO2 data logger in the field because it exceeds the NFPA requirements for specific codes and tests.
NFPA 12 standards require that CO2 concentrations be measured and recorded at multiple heights in the discharge space over specified times. This means that a testing agency will have to do one of the following: complete three tests one at each height OR purchase three devices to measure the different heights during a single test. The CO2 Sampling Data Logger allows testing companies and permitting/regulatory agencies to validate the fire suppression systems ability to rapidly and effectively put out fires. Validation information can also be transferred to insurance carriers as well.
Some permitting/regulatory agencies may require an oxygen depletion test as well which will validate the absence of oxygen in the space. These tests are often requested as back-up data to the initial CO2 test or as testing when other inert gases like Argon or Nitrogen are used as a suppressant. In these cases we recommend our 0-25% Oxygen Sampling Data Logger.
Additionally, some fire inspectors are starting to require the addition of a fixed CO2 monitor where the high-pressure CO2 cylinders or low-pressure bulk storage tanks are housed. Storing the massive amount of gases required to operate a suppression system leaves the end user susceptible to potential CO2 leakage. While neither the NFPA nor the International Fire Code have yet to expand CO2 monitoring requirements beyond beverage delivery systems both organizations are considering language that would expand the monitoring requirement to all stored gases.
For more information on fire suppression testing and CO2 Safety Devices contact us.
“Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, NFPA 12-2018,” American National Standards Institute, February 2, 2018
“NFPA 2001: Standard on clean agent fire extinguishing systems," National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, Annex C, 2008
“ISO 14520-1: Gaseous fire extinguishing systems - physical properties and system design – part 1: general requirements," International Standards Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, Annex E, 2006
“A Modified Hold Time Model for Total Flooding Fire Suppression,” Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 45 (1), 12-20, 2010.
“Hypoxic Air for Fire Prevention,” Wikipedia.